Risk can be a risky word in English!
If there's a risk, then there is some kind of situation where a bad or undesirable thing might happen, as in the example above - HIV and tuberculosis.
Here there are basically three options.
40% of people living with HIV are at risk of developing tuberculosis.
subject + to be + at risk of + of bad thing
A weak immune system can make it easier to contract tuberculosis, and people living with HIV are particularly at risk.
clause mentioning the bad thing + people who might experience the bad thing + to be + (adverb) + at risk
40% of people living with HIV risk developing tuberculosis.
people who might experience the bad thing + risk + name of bad thing
Here the 'bad thing' is not mentioned.
People who have unprotected sex are taking a risk.
subject + take + a risk/risks
Notice the collocation: take a risk!
Risk as noun is also often used as a noun modifier:
Unprotected sex is a high risk activity.
subject + to be + a + high risk + noun
Here again, the 'bad thing' is not mentioned.
Unprotected sex is risky.
subject + to be + risky
Now try this short practice activity (inspired by my nephew - see featured image!).